beech scale insect

Beech Scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga) is a soft bodied, yellow insect. The beech scale insect was first detected in West Virginia in 1981. BBD begins when bark tissues, attacked by the exotic beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind. These wingless insects do not fly but are blown by wind from tree to tree, which allows them to spread quickly through dense beech stands such as those found at Pictured Rocks. Other leaf feeding pests include caterpillar defoliators such as gypsy moth, leaf beetles, and eriophyid mites. Many of them are agricultural pests, while others prey on trees or other plant life. Disease Pattern. Beech scale insects exude a white coating that is easily visible against the beech’s smooth gray . Extremely cold temperatures below -30°C will kill beech scale insects not protected by the snow cover. Nectria fungus is then able to enter and infect the tree through these wounds. FRONT COVER: A stem heavily infested by the beech scale insect Cryptococcus fagisuga. The beech scale insect has since spread to the far north in Quebec, and to the west and south throughout New England, New York, New Jersey, northern and western Pennsylvania, western Michigan, eastern West Virginia, and western North Carolina. Once infected, most mature beech trees weaken and die slowly over the span of several years. Learn more (leaves DEC website). West Virginia Department of Agriculture has been conducting artificial challenges of “potentially resistant” beech trees. are rendered susceptible to killing attacks by fungi of the genus Nectria (Ehrlich 1934). Beech bark disease is the result of the combined effects of a non-native scale insect and a canker fungi. These fissures provide an entryway for fungal inoculation with ei-ther Neonectria ditissima (Tul. Scales rarely kill a plant by themselves but may predispose plants to attack from wood-boring insects or open up wounds that provide entry sites for plant pathogens. Photos by Karen Hall NCSU College of Forestry and Steve Oak USFS. Introduction. Patches of bark killed by the fungus Nectria coccinea can be seen as dark areas within the mass of white wax secreted by the insects. They feed, with their tube-like mouthparts, within the vascular system, where nutrients and fluids are transported. The principal fungus, N. coccinea var. The beech scale insect wounds the tree by piercing the bark with sharp mouth parts and sucking out the sap. Even in heavily infested areas, trees that remain free of scale may not be truly resistant. At worst, death can result from beech bark disease. In mid-summer, the female deposits her eggs (asexual reproduction) in the bark fissures. This disease, also called Beech Bark Disease, is a disease complex involving the beech scale insect Cryptococcus fagi and the canker-causing fungus Nectria coccinea var. This results in creating holes and cracks in the bark. Fungal disease that kills American beech trees after being attacked by the beech scale insect (C. fagisuga) (McCullough et al. It’s been found in 12 counties. Control the disease by controlling the scale with a dormant spray of lime sulfur. faginata. Older and larger trees are more susceptible to BBD than younger ones. beech scale insect Preliminary evidence suggests that beech scale insect honeydew has a negative effect on terrestrial litter decomposition rates in Nothofagus forests of New Zealand Honeydew production by New Zealand beech scale insects ( Ultracoelostoma spp., Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is widely considered to have a positive influence on native animal abundance and ecosystem functioning. The larva hatches and stays in the same place or migrates to other cracks. Beech bark disease attacks beech trees in North America and is caused by the combined effects of the non-native scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, and Neonectria fungi. 2006). The scale insect was introduced into Nova Scotia from Europe in the late 1800s. Mechanical and silvicultural. This beech bark disease kills most in-fected trees at least 8-10 inches in diameter, affecting the supply of beech sawtimber. Most trees die within 10 years of infestation by the insect and fungi. beech scale insect inserts its feeding stylet into the bark creating small fissures that provide entryway for infection by one of the Neonectria species of fungus (Neonectria ditissima or Neonectria faginata). Beech bark disease begins when American beech (Fagus grandifolia) becomes infested with beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind) (=Cryptococcus fagi Baer.). Whether flat against leaves or fruit, or lumpy bumps on branches or stems, this widespread superfamily of insects is well over 8000 species strong. Beech Scale Nectria Canker. In fall, the nymph becomes stationary again and secretes a woolly envelope. Beech bark disease (BBD) results in high levels of initial mortality, leaving behind survivor trees that are greatly weakened and deformed. There is no practical control method for beech scale infestations in natural forests. The scale body has rudimentary legs and antennae, reddish brown eyes and a two-millimeter long stylet for feeding. The beech scale, in association with Neonectria faginata, causes the beech bark disease. Beech is host to a variety of insect pests. This insect produces copious amounts of honeydew that supports growth of sooty molds. Beech bark disease (BBD) is caused by both a sap-feeding scale insect and a fungus. The scale insect feeds on the beech tree sap, opening wounds in the tree for the fungus to start colonizing the bark, cambium layer, and sapwood of the tree (OFAH/OMNR Invading Species Awareness Program, 2012). Control 1. bark. 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